History of Shotcrete

Below is a timeline of the major developments in the shotcrete process:1907: In the USA, Carl Akeley invented the dry spray machine

  • 1907: In the USA, Carl Akeley invented the dry spray machine
  • 1910: Double chambered cement gun introduced to construction industry
  • 1920s: Gunite mortar used to fireproof mine drifts
  • 1930s: American Railway Engineering Association introduced the term ‘shotcrete’ to describe the gunite process
  • 1940s: Coarse aggregates introduced
  • 1950s: Shotcrete first reported use in Australian slope stabilisation and refractory linings

 

  • 1955: Wet mix introduced
  • 1960s: Tunnels, Snowy Hydro scheme and swimming pools sprayed, remote controlled shotcrete equipment introduced
  • 1966: ACI adopted the term ‘shotcrete’ to describe pneumatically applied mortar and concrete – wet and dry
  • 1971: Steel fibre introduced
  • 1977: Norwegians introduce steel fibre and started to use remote equipment on a large scale
  • 1980: Sandy Hollow Rail Tunnel NSW
  • 1987: First Australian shotcrete guide CIA – Sprayed Concrete
  • 2008: 1st edition of Guide to Shotcreting Australia by AUSS
  • 2010: 2nd edition of Guide to Shotcreting Australia by AUSS
  • 2012: 800,000 m3 sprayed in Australian annually – 70% underground, 30% civil
  • 2013+ Stabilisation, robotic ground support for mines, shafts and tunnels, simulated rock finishes

Centre: Early Shotcrete placement, c 1950.

Left and Right: Early Shotcrete pumps.

 

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